Causes, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of diabetes

2019-11-08 14:50 Source:未知 Writer: admin
Diabetes mellitus is a disease caused by the inability of the body to release or use insulin properly and to increase the level of glucose (a single sugar) in the blood.
Blood glucose levels are in flux throughout the day, and blood sugar levels rise and return to normal within two hours. After the night fasting, the morning blood glucose level is normal at 70 ~ 110mg/dl. Usually, after eating or drinking sugar water or other carbohydrates, blood sugar should be below 120 ~ 140mg/dl. After the age of 50, older people, especially younger ones, have a slightly higher blood sugar level.
Insulin is a hormone secreted by the pancreas, a major substance that keeps blood sugar in its normal range. Insulin causes blood sugar to be transferred to the cell, producing energy or storing glucose for use when needed. After a meal, the blood sugar increases to stimulate the pancreas to secrete insulin, prevent the blood sugar from rising further, and gradually decrease blood sugar, because the muscle will use glucose as energy, so physical activity can also decrease blood sugar
Diabetes occurs when the body cannot produce enough insulin to maintain normal blood sugar levels, or cells are not sensitive to insulin. Ⅰ diabetes, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus) patients with pancreas produces insulin little or no insulin. Although diabetes accounts for about 6% of the population, but only 10% were Ⅰ diabetes. Ⅰ diabetes patients are mostly in the onset before age 30.
Scientists believe that environmental factors in children or adolescents, is likely to be viral infection or nutritional factors causing an immune reaction, destruction of insulin-producing cells within the pancreas, also may be associated with genetic susceptibility. No matter what cause, for more than 90% of the Ⅰ diabetes patients with insulin cells (beta cells) permanent damage. The lack of insulin is serious, and the patient must regularly inject insulin to survive.
Ⅱ diabetes, non insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus) in patients with pancreas can continue to produce insulin, sometimes even more than normal insulin level. However, the body's role in insulin resistance leads to a relative lack of insulin. Ⅱ diabetes can occur in children and adolescents, but see more at 30 years old, and progressive increase with the increase of age. About 15% above the 70 - year - old type Ⅱ diabetes. Obesity is a risk factor for Ⅱ diabetes, patients with this type of 80% ~ 90% are obese. Certain racial and cultural background is also Ⅱ risk factor for diabetes, black and Hispanic type Ⅱ diabetes increased risk of 2 ~ 3 times. Ⅱ diabetes have family genetic tendency.
Other rare etiology of diabetes are: corticosteroid levels rising abnormalities, pregnancy (gestational diabetes) (see section 246), drugs and interfere with the role of insulin or poison can make blood sugar levels

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